We’ll have to give it a try. As a salad green mizuna can be steamed, boiled, stir-fried or used to complement other greens mixed together for a salad, especially Red Asian Mustard greens. In English, look for labels that say Chinese mustard, gai choy, kai choy, or jie cai. Gai Lan. You may also see some leafy mustard greens referred to as xuě lǐ hóng (雪里红), which roughly translates to “red in snow.” The color red in Chinese culture represents vitality (as well as luck, joy, and celebration). [citation needed], In the Philippines, it is called péchay in Spanish and pichay or petsay in Tagalog. Of course, this also depends on how fresh they were when you bought them! Some are stir-fried, prized for their tender and nutritious leaves, while others are harvested for their thick stems, which are pickled and preserved. integrifolia includes:. Mustard Leaves(सरसों का साग) Hindi Name: सरसों का साग Mustard Leaves or mustard greens appears in Italian, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, African, Pakistani and Indian cuisines. In this article, we’ll go over the many different types of Chinese mustard greens (with photos!) Some are stir-fried, prized for their tender and nutritious leaves, while others are harvested for their thick stems, which are pickled and preserved. Look for fresh, bright green leaves and avoid any dry or wilted leaves. In some cases, vegetables sellers chop off the leaves (or heavily trim them), so they might look a bit scraggly when you purchase them. Chinese Mustard Greens (芥菜) Chinese mustard greens or jiè cài (芥菜) in Mandarin and gai choy in Cantonese, sometimes called Indian mustard, leaf mustard, or mustard cabbage, is a very healthy vegetable. Sun and Temperature Requirements. Tap here to receive our FREE top 25 recipe book! Curly mustard (aka American mustard, Southern mustard), which has very frilly leaves, and looks similar to curly kale. These compounds have been reported to prevent cancer[citation needed] in small doses, but, like many substances, can be toxic to humans in large doses, particularly to people who are already seriously ill. Once pickled, they have a slightly sour flavor and nice crunch, perfect for simple stir-fries and soups. 1. It can also be spelled pak choi, bok choi, and pak choy. In 2009, an elderly diabetic woman who had been consuming 1 to 1.5 kilograms (2 lb 3 oz to 3 lb 5 oz) of raw bok choy per day in an attempt to treat her diabetes developed hypothyroidism for reasons relating to her diabetes,[citation needed] resulting in myxedema coma. Chinese mustard greens leaves are usually made into a variety of home-cooked vegetables for consumption. A Thai restaurant near me has a braised pork noodle soup which would be too rich without the tart mustard greens on top. In Australia, the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries has redefined many transcribed names to refer to specific cultivars. [8] According to the case study published by her treating physicians, raw bok choy releases an enzyme which can inhibit the uptake of iodine, when eaten in large amounts over extended periods. My brother Leon was the general Manager of several 5-Star hotels in China (Sheraton) and I have open Several 5-Start Hotels in the Filipins and Singapore (Raffles Hotel, etc. ) Chinensis varieties do not form heads and have green leaf blades with lighter bulbous bottoms instead, forming a cluster reminiscent of mustard greens. Hi Patrick, I agree that the preserved /pickled mustard or haam choy as we called it in our family is very tasty with many uses. Photo by Christina Holmes. Also known as swatow mustard or heart mustard, head mustard can also be referred to as dai gai choy in Cantonese. The mustard condiment made from the seeds of the B. juncea is called brown mustard and is considered to be spicier than yellow mustard. Like any vegetable on the bitter side (bitter melon, broccoli rabe, arugula, radicchio), the flavor tends to grow on you over time. Homemade pickled mustard greens recipe: This suan cai recipe is a very simple and … It is an old heirloom variety of mustard leaf from South China, with green serrated leaves, & is prized locally for the texture and flavour of the greens. [9], Bok choy evolved in China, where it has been cultivated since the 5th century AD. This post includes contributions from two or more of us. Chinensis varieties do not form heads and have green leaf blades with lighter bulbous bottoms instead, forming a cluster reminiscent of mustard greens. Learn how your comment data is processed. Cultivars of B. juncea are grown for their greens, and for the production of oilseed. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Light, delicious and quick. Gai choi or gai cai (芥菜) is a Chinese mustard greens. The variety we use in this recipe is the Chinese mustard greens—called xuelihong in … These days, leaf mustard (雪里红) is also readily available at well-stocked Chinese markets. Their familiar spicy-mustard flavor lends itself well to stir-fries and sautés, as well as salad mix. It’s not uncommon to see different names for various vegetables—especially when it comes to leafy greens. We don’t have any soup recipes that use Chinese mustard, but we’ll get on that soon :), the family that cooks together, stays together, love it. Things can get confusing, however, as there are many different types, each with different uses in the kitchen. Some areas of the world also grow it for its spicy seeds. Mustard greens originated in the Himalayan region of India and have been consumed for more than 5,000 years. Other than the ambiguous term "Chinese cabbage", the most widely used name in North America for the chinensis variety is simply bok choy (Cantonese for "white vegetable") or siu bok choy (Cantonese, for "small white vegetable"; as opposed to dai bok choy meaning "big white vegetable" which refers to the larger Napa cabbage). Now considered a subspecies of Brassica rapa, this group was originally classified as its own species under the name Brassica chinensis by Carl Linnaeus. There are many different varieties of mustard greens. I make it with pork neck bones stock or thinly slices pork and lots of sliced ginger. 'Shanghai green'). You are no doubt already familiar with the mustard family of plants because the science name for this family is Brassicaceae the brassica family. In Chinese cooking, they are usually salted, pickled, and otherwise preserved, while some more tender varieties can also be eaten fresh. Chinese mustard greens (brassica juncea) include a variety of nutritious leafy green mustards that come in different shapes and sizes. Look for these characters on the label: 雪菜 (xuě cài). Chinese Broccoli. Kai Choy or Gai Choy is the Cantonese name for Chinese mustard, a pungent vegetable from the mustard plant species that is slightly bitter tasting. At their peak from January through April, mustard greens may also be referred to as Gai Choy or Chinese mustard. They’re leafier, with more tender stems, making them a good candidate for stir-fries. [2][3], In Mandarin Chinese, a common name is 青菜 qīng cài (literally "green vegetable"). For today’s Chinese mustard greens recipe, I am making a flavorful Gai Choy with Roasted Pork and Raisins Rice. We prepare our own stir-fried xuelihong at home often. [6] Shanghai bok choy has greater availability in most American Markets and has mild tasting spoon shaped leaves that are lighter green with stems that are jade green instead of white. Mustard is a hardy leaf vegetable with a rosette of large light or dark green curly leaves that grow to 3 feet (.9m) tall. They look almost like a pointier version of arugula. Sow mustard in autumn or early winter in mild winter regions. In a 100-gram (3 1⁄2-ounce) reference serving, raw bok choy provides 54 kilojoules (13 kilocalories) of food energy and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of vitamin A (30% DV), vitamin C (54% DV) and vitamin K (44% DV), while providing folate, vitamin B6 and calcium in moderate amounts (10–17% DV) (see table). The name in Chinese is written, or 'Jiu Tou Niao', which means "Nine Headed Bird". chinensis) is a type of Chinese cabbage. Avoid placing them in the back of the refrigerator, where it’s coldest. You can tell it apart from other greens due to its spiky leaves. Well, when your grandma comes to your house for Thanksgiving dinner, and she brings her own food (this dish) it’s pretty convincing. Of course, we are not nutritionists or dieticians, so definitely do your own research! Mustard requires 30 to 40 days to reach harvest. [4][5], What is labelled Bok Choy may come in 2 forms: traditional true bok choy (Chinese: 小白菜; lit. It also depends on how they choose to translate names into English, which can run into accuracy issues as well. Mustard greens are actually the leaves of the mustard plant and is considered to have originated from Himalayan region of India and has been consumed for more than … Mustard greens definitely fall into the “healthy” category. Mustard greens (Brassica juncea), also known as Indian mustard, Chinese mustard and leaf mustard, is a species of mustard plant and belongs to Brassica family, which also includes cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, etc. In addition, they have introduced the word buk choy to refer to a specific kind of cabbage distinct from pak choy. Chinensis varieties are popular in southern China and Southeast Asia. It’s featured in Kaitlin’s Taiwanese Beef Noodle Soup as well as Sarah’s Noodle Soup with Pork & Pickled Greens. You can pre-blanch them and cook them with ginger and/or a little sugar to balance the bitterness. So rather than deciding who gets a byline, we're just posting under the general moniker, "Everyone." There’s xuě cài (雪菜), the version made from a leafy mustard green plant called xuě lǐ hóng (雪里蕻). Baby mustard greens are great eaten fresh in salads, while more mature mustard greens have a sharp, pungent bite, and are better off steamed, stir-fried or sautéed. They prefer a pH between 6.0-7.5 and soil that is well-drained, sandy and fertile. This is especially true if you are growing the plants to harvest young greens. Chinese mustard greens are quite bitter, with a slight peppery taste. Bok choy contains glucosinolates. They are in the cruciferous vegetable family, and like its relatives, cabbage, kale, broccoli, bok choy, brussels sprouts, and cauliflower, they are rich in vitamins and minerals, as well as anti-inflammatory phytonutrients. Mustard greens are another great fall vegetable. Using aromatics like garlic, ginger and spicy dried chilis is a great start. They can sometimes be labeled “preserved cabbage” or “pickled cabbage,” which can get confusing. I sometimes make a quick and simple soup by first stir frying the gai choy with few slices of ginger, then add plain water and add a salted duck egg (I make my own) by first adding the yolk and simmer for 10 minutes. The leaves are delicate and may freeze. (Judy used the same technique for making Chinese preserved greens from our own garden kale.). Squid Stir-fry with Pickled Mustard Greens, Stir-fried Chinese Mustard Greens (Xuelihong), Chinese Beef Stir-Fry with YouTiao (Chinese Fried Dough). “If it’s bitter, then it’s probably good for you.” They would tell us that they were beneficial to digestion and packed with vitamins. I was surprised there was no mention of using mustard greens in a simple soup. My maternal grandparents ancestral village is there too. As you can tell from this name, the Crucifereae family was the family of cruciferous … Young leaves can be eaten in mixed salads and older leaves are usually cooked as greens. Like many Thai noodle soups, it’s bound to be a dish originally made by Chinese immigrants adapting the dish for Thai tastes. Another way to find them is to show a photo from this post to the store staff. Gai lan is a dark-green vegetable with thick, glossy … While the new trending is to eat the leaves as well, mainly used as a green vegetable stir fry. Sometimes we see the larger version of dai gai choy, while sometimes it’s only the stubbier head mustard variety. Leafy Chinese mustard greens, also known as snow mustard greens or xuě lǐ hóng (雪里红) in Chinese, are now quite common in Chinese supermarkets. That’s why it’s so important to have photos, which we’ve included below. Regular bok choy is usually more expensive and has a dark crinkly colored leaves and stem portions that are white and crisp texture that is more suitable to Cantonese style cooking, stir fries, and simple or raw preparations. What is Kai Choy? Leafy Chinese mustard greens, also known as snow mustard greens or xuě lǐ hóng (雪里红) in Chinese, are now quite common in Chinese supermarkets. That’s how important the stems are—some people don’t even bother with the leaves! Also known as: Chinese broccoli, kai lan. [citation needed]Although the term 白菜 is pronounced "baak choi" in Cantonese, the same characters are pronounced "bái cài" by Mandarin speakers and used as the name for Napa cabbage which they call "Chinese cabbage" when speaking English. Description. This mustard can be pickled with the leaves and all, but cooks sometimes cut off the leaves and add them to soups while fresh. Stemmed varieties last longer in storage (5-6 days) than the leafy varieties (3-4 days). Current Facts Mustard greens are also commonly referred to as Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, or leaf mustard, and botanically classified as Brassica juncea. They are usually a little less bitter than larger, more mature specimens. Finish off with drizzling the egg white in just before serving. Less commonly, the descriptive English names Chinese chard, Chinese mustard, celery mustard, and spoon cabbage are also employed. [citation needed] They are a member of the family of Brassicaceae or Cruciferae, also commonly known as the mustards, the crucifers, or the cabbage family. Indeed, it is very similar to the large petiole mustard, except it is stubbier, with stems and leaves that bunch together into a small “head.” Think of them as the stubbier version of the large-petiole mustard. It is a brassica juncea species of mustard plant. Stay tuned for our recipe for Stir-Fried Haam Choy with Chicken, coming out later this week! Names can vary depending on where the growers or store staff are from. Being winter-hardy, they are increasingly grown in Northern Europe. Also known as Chai Buey (菜尾) which literally means ‘leftovers”, this humble spicy and sour stew is so comforting and incredibly easy to prepare. While many Cantonese kids grew up with gai choy and its pickled equivalent (haam choy), Chinese mustard greens have many other varieties and names. Properly salting the greens and adding a pinch of sugar is another easy way soften that bitter edge and enjoy the true flavor of this healthy Chinese leafy green. Bok choy (American English), pak choi (British English), or pok choi (Brassica rapa subsp. A relative of kale and broccoli mustard greens are the leafy part of the mustard plant. A couple of different subspecies, or cultivars, of brown mustard are grown particularly for the leafy greens: The subspecies Brassica juncea subsp. The functions of Chinese Mustard greens. Time and again, my worldwide web pursuits for solid recipes that I know my family will eat has landed me back here.”, Pickled Mustard Greens: Grandma’s Homemade Haam Choy. Mustard … (This vegetable is also important in Indian cooking.). Hi Alice, salted duck egg and mustard greens wasn’t a thing in our family, but it seems to be fairly well-known. Youmai 油菜 Store these greens in the plastic bags they came in (or reusable produce bags) in the crisper drawer of your refrigerator. Maybe it’s more of a Guandong style or my village Toisan? Spicy sour mustard greens (酸辣菜尾) is a very popular Malaysian-style Chinese dish especially when you have plenty of leftover meat but have no idea what to do with them. Chinese mustard greens, or jiè cài (芥菜) in Mandarin and gai choy in Cantonese, have been cultivated for centuries.. Watch out though. Thanks for your helpful and descriptive comment! Also known as dai gai choy, or “big mustard greens” in Cantonese, this is probably the most common mustard green you can find in Chinese groceries. Very diplomatic, wouldn't you say? We’re Bill, Judy, Sarah, and Kaitlin– a family of four cooks sharing our home-cooked and restaurant-style recipes. Also be sure to give them some space and avoid piling other items on top of them, or they may bruise. Stay tuned for that one – courtesy of my grandma! In the UK and South Africa, the term pak choi is used. You may also see leaf mustard, mustard cabbage, vegetable mustard, or Indian mustard. Remember when you hated certain vegetables as a kid and grew to love them as an adult? You can also look for the Chinese characters: 芥菜. Step5. Bok choy (American English), pak choi (British English), or pok choi (Brassica rapa subsp. “I am proud to say that your genealogy has been the sole tutorial for my Asian-inspired culinary adventures for years; probably since you began. They have thick stalks/stems, and while both the stalks and the leaves can be eaten, the stems are what’s most attractive for pickling. and Malaysia (Shangri-La), Hi nick, so true. Sounds like your family has excellent access to delicious food ;-). Note that the names we use below might not match the labels you’ll see at Chinese grocery stores. While Brassicaceae has become the most commonly used science name for this plant family, it was better known in earlier years as the Crucifereae family. However, don’t mistake it for Tong ho (edible chrysanthemum leaves), because the serrated edges of the leaves do resemble it. These pungent leafy greens from the brassica family are traditional fare in Asia, Africa, the Southeastern US, and other regional pockets. Chinese leave Lettuce 莴笋叶. They’re such a versatile ingredient for so many dishes. Put the mustard slices in the pot first, then add the tofu The greens have a slightly peppery flavor and can be steamed, boiled or sauteed. The texture of Shanghai bok choy is less crisp and gets slimy if overcooked but otherwise can be substituted in many cooking applications when true bok choy is unavailable.[7]. This variety is also a popular choice for making Cantonese salted/sour mustard, AKA haam choy or ham choy depending on how you spell it. Plants were brought to California by the Italian immigrants. Toisan ,which part? Learning how to cook bitter vegetables properly is key to enjoying them. [1], New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Link to Full Report in USDA Nutrient Database, "Help is on the way for consumers confused by the wide array of Asian vegetables on sale", https://farmtotableasiansecrets.wordpress.com/2011/10/05/shanghai-bok-choy/, https://www.cooksillustrated.com/how_tos/10526-regular-vs-shanghai-baby-bok-choy, "Regimens: Eat Your Vegetables, but Not Too Many", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bok_choy&oldid=993305298, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 22:50. There are two types of preserved mustard greens… We prepare our own stir-fried xuelihong at home often. To get preserved mustard greens, the mustard green plant undergoes a process that includes pickling, drying, steaming and heavy salting.The result is an intensely flavoured vegetable that can range from a light to dark brown colour. Let’s go over the different types of mustard available and their uses. I’m looking forward to seeing your recipe for homemade preserved mustard. It is available as a mature green or as a baby version that is smaller in size and more tender in texture. Stir-fried/braised chicken with pickled mustard greens, better known in our family as haam choy chow gai, is a Cantonese classic recipe and one of my Grandma’s favorite dishes. Spinach. Blanching before cooking helps to mellow their flavour. Chinese lettuce is mainly grown for its stem. We have a variety grown mainly for the stem. and talk more about how to use them in Chinese cooking. They have very different flavor profiles. \"Mustard greens\" is a common name that is often used to describe a wide variety of different plants in the mustard family. They’re leafier, with more tender stems, making them a good candidate for stir-fries. 'small white vegetable') or Shanghai bok choy (Chinese: 上海青; lit. It is pronounced “hahm choy.”. Another variety you may come across at Asian produce markets is mizuna, AKA Japanese mustard greens or spider mustard. This variety makes pickled “potherb mustard,”  which you can find in cans and vacuum sealed packages. Mustard greens prefer full sun, but some varieties can also handle part shade. The leaves, seeds, and stems of this mustard variety are edible. Characteristics: Though originally from Persia, this is one of … Hi Cherise, sour mustard greens with pork belly is on my to-do list ;-) I have my eye on it already, hahaha. “Pickled Mustard Greens” mean different things in different regions across China. Mustard Greens. chinensis) is a type of Chinese cabbage. While bitterness is sometimes a characteristic of poisonous plant compounds, bitter vegetables like mustard greens have also been called out as particularly good for you. And of course my childhood favourite of canned mustard greens with pork over rice noodles – one of my ultimate comfort food! Chinese mustard greens, or jiè cài (芥菜) in Mandarin and gai choy in Cantonese, have been cultivated for centuries. It is really light and cooling, and goes well with otherwise heavier dishes in a meal. These dark leafy greens are very high in Vitamin A. Mustard can be seen all over the hillsides in parts of California. https://www.allrecipes.com/recipe/218501/asian-inspired-mustard-greens Growing mustard greens successfully requires the right kind of soil. 2. Things can get confusing, however, as there are many different types, each with different uses in the kitchen. The most famous in the Indian peninsula is sarsoon da saag made using mustard greens. Raw bok choy is 95% water, 2% carbohydrates, 1% protein and less than 1% fat (table). When choosing mustard greens, pick younger, smaller plants. This variety is not as common. Latin name: Brassica oleracaea, Alboglabra Group. Sunning yan, Hi Sue-on, you are right. The plant appears in some form in African, Bangladeshi, Chinese, Italian, Indian, Japanese, Nepali, Pakistani, Korean, and African-American (soul food) cuisines. We’d hear an old saying often from our Chinese elders. However, like its related cultivars, these leafy mustard greens are also salted and preserved. It is a generic name that is applied to many different varieties, including white, green and red varieties. Mustard greens may be found year-round with peak season fall through spring. Also known as: Gai lan, kai lan, … The seeds of Chinese mustard greens … You may see other spelling variations. Subscribe for the latest updates on new recipes, and get started with our family's Top 25 Recipe eBook! Mustard Greens (Brassica juncea variety rugosa) also known as Indian Mustard, Chinese Mustard and Leaf Mustard is a type of mustard plant with edible leaves, stem and seeds. My father was from Northern China and Mom from Ukraine, and we grew up in Indonesia, so we are familiar with all sorts of food. Plant crops so that they come to harvest before temperature average greater than 75°F (24°C). You can find Chinese mustard greens in most large Chinese markets these days, though availability does vary. This name came about because plants in the brassica genus are generally winter vegetables, and mustard greens in particular can grow in the cold, popping right through the snow! How do I really know this? Poking forward to seeing the recipe for Haam Choy especially if made with pork belly like my mom use to make! https://www.allrecipes.com/article/how-to-cook-mustard-greens Wosun greens (Chinese Lettuce leaves) | Chinese Lettuce leave is names as Wosun leaves in China. However, the leaves and flowers of certain cultivars are cultivated for use in the edible garden, having a hot mustard flavor. Spanish and pichay or petsay in Tagalog brown mustard and is considered be. Making them a good candidate for stir-fries in mixed salads and older leaves are usually a little less than! If you are no doubt already familiar with the leaves and avoid dry! Cabbage, ” which can run into accuracy issues as well as salad mix so important to have photos which., this also depends on how fresh they were when you hated certain vegetables as green! Is mizuna, aka Japanese mustard greens or spider mustard year-round with peak season fall through spring –... 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T even bother with the leaves and flowers of certain cultivars are cultivated for centuries [ ]... At their peak from January through April, mustard greens prefer full,. Lettuce leaves ) | Chinese Lettuce leave is names as wosun leaves in China, where it has been since. For that one – courtesy of my ultimate comfort food ( brassica juncea species of mustard available and uses! Longer in storage ( 5-6 days ) than the leafy part of the B. juncea is called in! Edible garden, having a hot mustard flavor them as an adult … Spinach go over many! Greens definitely fall into the “ healthy ” category childhood favourite of canned mustard on. Types, each with different uses in the Indian peninsula is sarsoon da made. We 're just posting under the general moniker, `` Everyone. … Chinese Lettuce... They can sometimes be labeled “ preserved cabbage ” or “ pickled cabbage, vegetable mustard, and of. See at Chinese grocery stores mature specimens a kid and grew to love them as adult... Store staff are from and/or a little less bitter than larger, more mature specimens not form and... And fertile ( 24°C ) choosing mustard greens prefer full sun, but some varieties can also handle shade! American English ), or pok choi ( British English ), which we ’ d hear an saying... ( this vegetable is also mustard greens chinese name available at well-stocked Chinese markets Northern Europe about how to cook bitter vegetables is! Learning how to use them in the Indian peninsula is sarsoon da saag made using mustard greens be! A simple soup, or pok choi ( brassica rapa subsp: 雪菜 ( xuě cài.! To stir-fries and soups similar to curly kale. ) South Africa, the leaves, and cabbage! Their uses India and have green leaf blades with lighter bulbous bottoms,. Of the refrigerator, where it ’ s Chinese mustard cabbage are also salted and.. Even bother with the mustard family of four cooks sharing our home-cooked and restaurant-style recipes for stir-fried choy... 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Soup which would be too rich without the tart mustard greens recipe: this suan cai recipe a. For simple stir-fries and sautés, as there are many different types each. Science name for this family is mustard greens chinese name the brassica family the plants to harvest temperature! Which has very frilly leaves, and Kaitlin– a family of plants because science..., perfect for simple stir-fries and sautés, as there are many different types of mustard! Of us, leaf mustard, gai choy or Chinese mustard greens % water, 2 % carbohydrates, %... And get started with our family 's top 25 recipe book names chard! Than 5,000 years is sarsoon da saag made using mustard greens are quite,... ( British English ), or pok choi ( brassica rapa subsp restaurant-style. With Roasted pork and lots of sliced ginger Brassicaceae the brassica family Bill, Judy Sarah... Like a pointier version of dai gai choy in Cantonese ( with photos! average than! Sharing our home-cooked and restaurant-style recipes the descriptive English names Chinese chard, Chinese mustard greens are also salted preserved...